The Making of a Pariah State: The Adventurist Politics of Muammar Qaddafi

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The Libraries recently discovered that its microfilm collections have begun deteriorating due to vinegar syndrome. The film itself degrades and becomes unusable, and once the process begins, it can easily spread from reel to reel. Vinegar syndrome is often caused by less than ideal storage conditions such as room temperature fluctuations and high humidity, both of which are prevalent in the Wimberly Library.

Many microform collections are available electronically through purchased or subscribed journal backfiles or database archives. Please contact your library liaison for assistance. Interlibrary Loan provides article delivery and short-term loans to the FAU Community for resources that are not available in the collection. In the s, he developed chemical weapons, because of it critics called Libya a pariah state.

It also claims that his assets are scattered throughout much of Europe, [12] Despite no trace or proof for even 1 billion have been found. Bombing was condemned by many nations and also by UN. In , the United Nations imposed economic sanctions on Libya. Gaddafi started to have closer economic and security relations with the West. He cooperated with investigations into alleged Libyan anti-western acts, by he offered to dismantle weapon of mass destruction of Libya, which would be inspected in As a result, the UN sanctions were lifted in the same year.

In February there were major violent protests against Libyan government. These came alongside other demonstrations in Tunisia , Egypt , and other parts of the Arab world. The protests quickly turned into a civil war. Gaddafi vowed to "die a martyr " if necessary in his fight against rebels and external forces; he also said that "peaceful protest is one thing but armed rebellion is another.

On 17 May the International Criminal Court issued a request for an arrest warrant against Gaddafi for alleged crimes against humanity , [20] which was approved on 27 June and a warrant was issued by the court. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Muammar al-Gaddafi at an African Union Summit in Sons: Muhammad b. BBC News. Accuracy in Media. Retrieved 21 October The deportations continued into October, when Palestinians were stranded aboard a ferry off the coast of Cyprus , and were still camped on the Egyptian border.

The ensuing clash with Libyan troops was viewed by many observers as an indication of significant antigovernment feeling in eastern Libya. The growth of the Islamist movement in Libya is cause for concern in the region and for Qadhafi's maintenance in power. It withdrew its troops in December ; Qadhafi stated the mission of restoring peace and stability to the country had been achieved.

Qadhafi has long called for reforms in the Arab League , including the creation of a single Arab currency, the forging of closer ties between the Arab League and the African Union , and the use of Arab military force against Israel if it does not agree to the "complete return of the Palestinians to their land. The votes were 33 in favor, 3 opposed, and 17 abstentions. This caused international controversy, and led to calls for reform of the UN. The Human Rights Council is meant to be a standing body that would meet year-round to promote and protect human rights with a membership that excluded the worst human rights violators.

The constitution, which has been effectively superseded by the principles of Qadhafi's " Green Book ," proclaimed Libya to be "an Arab, democratic, and free Republic, which constitutes part of the Arab nation and whose objective is comprehensive Arab unity. Qadhafi, as chairman of the RCC, was the effective head of state and commander in chief of the armed forces.

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The people theoretically exercise their authority through a system of some people's congresses and committees. The GPC members are chosen out of about 2, representatives of the basic people's congresses. All executive and legislative authority is vested in the GPC, but it meets for only two weeks a year and delegates most of its authority to its own Secretariat and to the General People's Committee, in effect the cabinet, which is appointed by the Secretariat.

GPC members serve three-year terms. Voting for local people's congresses, whose elected members select members of the GPC, is mandatory for those over In , Qadhafi gave up his official post as secretary-general of the GPC to become a "private citizen. He also remains the commander of the armed forces and virtually all power is concentrated in him and his close advisers.

In , public discontent with shortages led Qadhafi to limit the authority of revolutionary committees, release many political prisoners, and remove restrictions on foreign travel and private enterprise. In the s Qadhafi saw his regime challenged by discontented military personnel and Islamist groups. Several assassination attempts have been reported, both within the military and from armed Islamist groups.

His intolerance of opposition has continued. In March the GPC adopted the Charter of Honor, imposing collective punishment on Libyans convicted of crimes of disorder, such as sabotage, drug and arms trafficking, and "terrorists, criminals, saboteurs and heretics. Political parties have not played an important role in Libya's history. All political parties were banned in by British administrators, but many groups soon emerged to debate their country's future.

However, it was dissolved in , following local disorders, after Libya's first election campaign.

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It was viewed as an organization to promote national unity but has functioned little since Seven exiled opposition groups agreed in Cairo in January to form a joint working group, but their work had no discernible impact on political conditions in Libya. Jamahiriya means "state of the masses" and politically implementing this system would involve a process of total decentralization of power, whereby all decisions would be left to the citizens via direct democracy.

One source claims that in the GPC divided Libya into 26 governorates Sha'biyah , each to be headed by the secretary of a people's committee. However, other sources differ on the structure of the local government.

According to some sources, Libya is divided into 3 provinces, 10 governorates, and 1, administrative communes. One source lists a subdivision of 34 governorates. The CIA reports that there are 25 "municipalities," but notes that they may have been replaced by 13 "regions.

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Although in theory Qadhafi plans to decentralize power to the popular congresses, most decision-making power is tightly controlled by the central government. The municipal people's congresses appoint people's committees to execute policy. The Libyan legal system largely follows Egyptian codes and precedents. All cases relating to personal status are dealt with according to Muslim law.

Minor civil and commercial cases were heard in summary courts by a sitting judge in each village and town until January Cases of the first instance are heard by courts of first instance, and appeals may be taken to courts of appeal. A separate body called the Shariah Court of Appeals hears cases appealed from the lower courts involving Islamic law. It may deal with constitutional and legislative questions referred to it and may hear administrative cases. Special revolutionary courts try political offenses.

The Purge Law provides for the confiscation of private assets above a certain amount. The law requires that the confiscated property should be given to the poor. In , the armed forces of Libya numbered 76, active and some 40, reserve personnel. The Army had an estimated 45, personnel armed with 2, main battle tanks, reconnaissance vehicles, over 1, armored infantry fighting vehicles, armored personnel carriers, and over 2, artillery pieces. The Navy had 8, personnel including the Coast Guard.

The Air Force numbered an estimated 23, active personnel, operating combat capable aircraft, including 7 bombers, fighters and fighter ground attack aircraft. The service also had 60 attack helicopters. The country is an observer in the WTO. Libya has been listed as a State Sponsor of Terrorism by the United States, even though the government has offered strong commitments to the United Nations to renounce and fight against terrorism.

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Libya is part of the Nonaligned Movement. Until the late s, Libya was one of the poorest countries in the world. But with the discovery of the Zaltan oil field in , the economic horizons of the country were dramatically enlarged.

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The first oil pipeline, from B'ir Zaltan to the coast, was opened in More oil fields were subsequently discovered, until in a peak oil output of Production has fallen since then, but its value has increased, and Libya remains one of the world's leading oil producers.

Petroleum, petroleum products, and natural gas accounted for almost all the value of exports and for one-quarter of GDP in As of , Libya had 12 oil fields with reserves of 1 billion barrels or more each, and two others with reserves of million — 1 billion barrels. A massive water pipeline project, called the Great Man-made River GMR project was initiated in , and was expected to take 25 years to complete.

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The GMR is built to carry water in a km mi pipeline from underground wells to a 3. This scheme envisaged providing irrigation large areas devoted to cereal cultivation. After , growth rates fluctuated sharply, reflecting changes in the oil market. Between and , during the UN-imposed air embargo, many large projects were postponed because of budget restrictions.

Libya's isolation slowed the pace of oil exploration through the absence of major foreign oil companies. Lack of outlets limited the development of refineries, petrochemicals, and gas facilities. In , the UN sanctions on Libya — an air and arms embargo — were suspended because of the extradition of two suspects in the bombing of the Pan Am flight over Lockerbie.

Oil companies are eager to exploit Libya's resources, and Libya as of was actively courting foreign companies to help develop its production capacity from 1.

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Libya is looking to cast itself as a key economic intermediary between Europe and Africa. The economy expanded by 9. The inflation rate was in the negatives for some years, and at The oil sector continued to be the main foreign exchange provider, but revenues from it are unevenly distributed across the different layers of society. The CIA defines GDP as the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year and computed on the basis of purchasing power parity PPP rather than value as measured on the basis of the rate of exchange based on current dollars.

The annual growth rate of GDP was estimated at 8. It was estimated that agriculture accounted for 7. Household consumption includes expenditures of individuals, households, and nongovernmental organizations on goods and services, excluding purchases of dwellings. As of , Libya's labor force totaled an estimated 1. Foreign workers, who do much of the bluecollar and technical work, are not treated wi The quality under Libyan labor law , and may only stay in the country for the duration of their employment contracts.

The largest employer is the government, which operates public utilities, public works, several banks, the port and harbor organizations, and other enterprises. The National Trade Unions ' Federation is the official trade organization, and any independent union or association is prohibited.

All Libyan workers are required to join a trade union. Foreign workers may not join unions and have little protection. There is no collective bargaining ; the government controls all employment matters. Strikes are not permitted. Foreign workers make up a large part of the labor force, but are subject to arbitrary treatment. There is no information about the prevalence of child labor although the minimum age for employment is legally set at 18 years old.