Internal Anatomy and Physiological Regulation

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Human physiology is the scientific study of the chemistry and physics of the structures of the body and the ways in which they work together to support the functions of life. Homeostasis is the state of steady internal conditions maintained by living things. The study of physiology certainly includes observation, both with the naked eye and with microscopes, as well as manipulations and measurements. However, current advances in physiology usually depend on carefully designed laboratory experiments that reveal the functions of the many structures and chemical compounds that make up the human body.

Like anatomists, physiologists typically specialize in a particular branch of physiology. For example, neurophysiology is the study of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves and how these work together to perform functions as complex and diverse as vision, movement, and thinking. Physiologists may work from the organ level exploring, for example, what different parts of the brain do to the molecular level such as exploring how an electrochemical signal travels along nerves.

Form is closely related to function in all living things. For example, the thin flap of your eyelid can snap down to clear away dust particles and almost instantaneously slide back up to allow you to see again.

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At the microscopic level, the arrangement and function of the nerves and muscles that serve the eyelid allow for its quick action and retreat. At a smaller level of analysis, the function of these nerves and muscles likewise relies on the interactions of specific molecules and ions. Even the three-dimensional structure of certain molecules is essential to their function. Your study of anatomy and physiology will make more sense if you continually relate the form of the structures you are studying to their function.

In fact, it can be somewhat frustrating to attempt to study anatomy without an understanding of the physiology that a body structure supports. Imagine, for example, trying to appreciate the unique arrangement of the bones of the human hand if you had no conception of the function of the hand. Sweating stops, the cutaneous arteries constrict vasoconstriction.

This minimises heat loss from the blood to the body surface. The hairs on the skin are raised involuntarily by the arrector pili muscles attached to each hair follicle. This layer acts as an insulator, trapping heat. Heat production can be increased by shivering, caused by messages from the brain to muscles.

This causes increased heat production as the muscle cells respire. Respiration can also be increased, as respiration is an exothermic reaction. Some animals can maintain their body temperature by behavioural adjustments, e. Some animals living in particularly cold areas are regionally heterothermic , and are able to allow their less insulated extremities to cool to temperatures much lower than their core temperatures, minimising heat loss through exposed body parts such as hooves, legs, feet, nose.

Hibernation occurs in some species in order to allow survival during times of limited food resources and low temperatures. Hormones also have anti-inflammatory effects and stimulate the lymphatic system. In summary, the endocrine system has a regulatory effect on basically every other body system. Stimulation of mast cells also produce changes in blood flow and capillary permeability which can effect the blood flow in the body and how it is regulated. It also helps synthesize vitamin D which interacts with calcium and phosphorus absorption needed for bone growth, maintenance, and repair.

Hair on the skin guards entrance into the nasal cavity or other orifices, preventing invaders from getting further into our bodies. Our skin also helps maintain balance by excretion of water and other solutes i. It also provides mechanical protection against environmental hazards. We need to remember that our skin is integumentary; it is our first line of defense. As the structural framework for the human body, the skeletal system consists mainly of the or so bones of the skeletal system but also includes cartilages, ligaments, and other connective tissues that stabilize and interconnect them.

Bones work in conjunction with the muscular system to aid in posture and locomotion. Many bones of the skeleton function as levers, which change the magnitude and direction of forces generated by skeletal muscle. Protection is a pivotal role occupied by the skeletal system, as many vital organs are encased within the skeletal cavities eg.

A brief introduction to physiology

The skeletal system also serves as an important mineral reserve. For example, if blood levels of calcium or magnesium are low and the minerals are not available in the diet, they will be taken from the bones.


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Also, the skeletal system provides calcium needed for all muscular contraction. Finally, red blood cells, lymphocytes and other cells relating to the immune response are produced and stored in the bone marrow. The muscular system is one of the most versatile systems in the body. The muscular system contains the heart, which constantly pumps blood through the body. The muscular system is also responsible for involuntary e.

Muscles also help protect organs in the body's cavities. The muscles in your body contract, which increases your body heat when you're cold. The act of shivering occurs when the internal temperature drops. Muscles around vital organs contract, breaking down ATP and thereby expanding heat, which is then distributed to the rest of the body. The cardiovascular system, in addition to needing to maintain itself within certain levels, plays a role in maintenance of other body systems by transporting hormones heart secretes Atrial Natriuretic Peptide and Brain Natriuretic Peptide, or ANP and BNP, respectively and nutrients oxygen, EPO to bones,etc.

What is physiology?

Homeostasis is disturbed if the cardiovascular or lymphatic systems are not functioning correctly. Our skin, bones, muscles, lungs, digestive tract, and nervous, endocrine, lymphatic, urinary and reproductive systems use the cardiovascular system as its "road" or "highway" as far as distribution of things such as nutrients, oxygen, waste products, hormones, drugs, etc.

There are many risk factors for an unhealthy cardiovascular system. Some diseases associated are typically labeled "uncontrollable" or "controllable. The cardiovascular system also contains sensors to monitor blood pressure, called baroreceptors, that work by detecting how stretched a blood vessel is. This information is relayed to the Medulla Oblongata in the brain where action is taken to raise or lower blood pressure via the autonomic nervous system.

Thermoregulation - Anatomy & Physiology - WikiVet English

The lymphatic system has three principal roles. First is the maintenance of blood and tissue volume. Excess fluid that leaves the capillaries when under pressure would build up and cause edema. Secondly, the lymphatic system absorbs fatty acids and triglycerides from fat digestion so that these components of digestion do not enter directly into the blood stream.

Third, the lymphatic system is involved in defending the body against invading microbes, and the immune response. This system assists in maintenance, such as bone and muscle repair after injuries.

Another defense is maintaining the acidic pH of urine to fight infections in the urinary system. The tonsils are our bodies "helpers" to defend us against infections and toxins absorbed from the digestive tract. The tonsils also protect against infections entering into our lungs.

What Is Anatomy and Physiology?

The respiratory system works in conjunction with the cardiovascular system to provide oxygen to cells within every body system for cellular metabolism. The respiratory system also removes carbon dioxide. Since CO2 is mainly transported in the plasma as bicarbonate ions, which act as a chemical buffer, the respiratory system also helps maintain proper blood pH levels, a fact that is very important for homeostasis. As a result of hyperventilation, CO2 is decreased in blood levels. This causes the pH of body fluids to increase.

If acid levels rise above 7. On the other hand, too much CO2 causes pH to fall below 7.

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