Biomechanics of Motion

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The course focuses first on the anatomy and physiology of the human muscle-force system, then on biomechanical applications involved in human movement. Lectures, discussions, data collection at a motion analysis laboratory, computer labs, project presentations and reports. Mechanics I and II or corresponding courses. PRO1 - Project, 7. The examiner may apply another examination format when re-examining individual students.

The course grade is based on 5 at-home group assignments and 1 at-home group final project. Some of these are presented orally and some in written form. Elena Gutierrez Farewik. Further information about the course can be found on the Course web at the link below. Information on the Course web will later be moved to this site.

All members of a group are responsible for the group's work. In any assessment, every student shall honestly disclose any help received and sources used. In an oral assessment, every student shall be able to present and answer questions about the entire assignment and solution.

Most Downloaded Journal of Biomechanics Articles - Elsevier

SG Biomechanics of Human Movement 7. A relation of similarity of the muscular activation pattern can be observed in the displacement phase in the two conditions with and without the orthosis , since there was no significant difference of activation in any of the muscles in that phase when comparing both conditions.

It is due to the fact that during this phase, the wrist stabilization occurs not only because of the presence of the orthosis, but also because of the synergism of the forearm musculature required for any transport activity, allowing an isometric and stable contraction Therefore, the displacement phase is less influenced by the presence or absence of the orthosis, and it is a probable justification for the data obtained. The release phase predominantly comprises movements supported by gravity; therefore, they require less muscular effort. The result obtained in the release phase shows that the co-contraction of the anterior deltoid and posterior deltoid muscles keeps the proximal stability of the limb to the detriment of wrist immobilization.

Yoo et al. Another study 29 also demonstrated that during a manufacturing task in which volunteers had to move objects and place them into a box, there was a significant increase in the activation of the upper trapezius, anterior deltoid, and posterior deltoid.

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With an electromyographic analysis, Ferrigno et al. During the reach phase, the main movements observed were shoulder flexion and elbow extension, which did not present significant difference when comparing the two conditions.

Our findings differ from another study involving the use of a static wrist orthosis for the comparison of the effect of immobilization versus non immobilization when performing the movements of flexion, abduction, and shoulder rotation while feeding, in which a significant difference was found for the flexion and abduction movements, leading to a greater muscular activation of the shoulder with the orthosis in the feeding movement A hypothesis for this difference in results may be the type of task selected, since the functional task of carrying a jar is a gross motor activity when compared to the feeding movement.

Shu and Mirka 32 suggested, in a kinematic study that used an occupational task, a significant increase in shoulder abduction and trunk posture when the task was performed with the orthosis in the neutral position of the wrist when compared to the task without the orthosis.

In this study, in the displacement phase, the presence of abduction movements and internal rotation of the shoulder, flexion and pronation of the elbow were observed. The negative value obtained in our results of this movement confirmed that during the displacement phase no abduction of the shoulder was observed in relation to its starting point.

The use of the wrist orthosis limited mainly the movements originated at the proximal joints of immobilization. Therefore, due to wrist immobilization with the orthosis, significant differences were also observed in elbow flexion and pronation movements, since this task required a greater movement of excursion. The predominant movements in the release phase were shoulder extension and elbow flexion, which can be considered the opposite pattern of the reach phase.


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A significant difference was observed for these movements when performed with and without the wrist orthosis, with great variability in the movement pattern among the volunteers. Chang and Jung 33 proposed that the use of volar wrist orthosis when performing skilled activities significantly reduced the generation of force and the time to perform the analyzed activities.


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  5. Therefore, the authors explain the importance of the theoretical knowledge and a good evaluation when prescribing an orthosis. The study limitations include the use of volunteers without injury in the upper limb, when simulating activities without prior training. Further studies are required to analyze biomechanical changes in clinical situations and while performing different functional tasks. A proper evaluation of the patient is required to prescribe the use of an orthosis, due to the effects that this device can produce in terms of biomechanical compensations while performing a task.

    Prediction of handgrip forces using surface EMG of forearm muscles. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. Fisioter Pesqui. Effects of grip type and wrist posture on forearm EMG activity, endurance time and movement accuracy. Int J Ind Ergon. Upper extremity function after wrist arthrodesis. J Hand Surg. In: Kapandji AI. Should we think about wrist extensor after flexor tendon repair?

    Normal functional range of motion of the upper limb joints during performance of three feeding tasks. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. Muscle alive: their function revealed by electromyography. Introduction to surface electromyography. Gaithersburg: Aspen; Biomechanics analysis techniques: a primer. Research methods in biomechanics. Champaign: Human Kinetics; Orthotics in rehabilitation: splinting the hand and body. Philadelphia: F. Davis Company; Chapter 1, Objectives, design and terminology; p.

    Research unit Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human Movement

    In: Freitas PP, editor. Foundations of orthotic intervention. Rehabilitation of the hand and upper extremity. Amsterdam: Elsevier; Chapter ; p. Hand and upper extremity splinting: principles and methods. The immediate and short-term effects of a wrist extension orthosis on upper-extremity kinematics and range of shoulder motion. Am J Occup Ther. Rev Bras Ortop. An electromyography study of wrist extension orthoses and upper-extremity function. Role of wrist immobilization in the work environment: ergonomics and carpal tunnel syndrome. The assessment and analysis of handedness: the Edinburgh inventory.


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    Rev Bras Fisioter. Upper extremity coordination strategies depending on task demand during a basic daily activity. Gait Posture. ISB recommendation on definitions of joint coordinate systems of various joints for the reporting of human joint motion: part II: shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand. J Biomech.

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    Confiabilidade de um teste funcional de desempenho do membro superior: teste Elui. The effect of use of a wrist orthosis during functional activities on surface electromyography of the wrist extensors in normal subjects. J Hand Ther. Influence of volar and dorsal static orthoses in different wrist positions on muscle activation and grip strength in healthy subjects. Hand Ther.

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    Effects of wrist-extension orthosis on shoulder and scapular muscle activities during simulated assembly tasks. Ind Health. Shoulder muscle activity increases with wrist splint use during a simulated upper-extremity work task. Electromyography of the upper limbs during computer work: a comparison of 2 wrist orthoses in healthy adults.

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